sains Article

Fakulti Pendidikan serta Bahasa

Sept 2011 ( SMP KHAS )


English For Written Interaction



The crimes committed against personal computers have been growing gradually during 21st century. This situation is began to claim focus in national capitals. The major platforms pertaining to transactions through the use of communication technologies in government and business infrastructure turn into potential victims of cyber crime. People's personal info in financial institutions or govt institutions will probably be revealed. However , existing laws are still unenforceable against the offences.


In line with the definition inside the dictionary, " Cyber crime” means " a lawbreaker activity committed on the net. This is a broad term that describes many methods from electronic breaking to refusal of services attacks that cause electric commerce sites to lose money".

While the category of President of and advisor, Mr. Pavan Duggal, cybercrimes can be essentially divided into a few major groups. They are Internet crimes against persons, Internet crimes against property and Cyber crimes against federal government.

The Authorities of The european countries Convention in Cyber criminal offenses defines computer-related crimes while: computer-related offences such as forgery and scam, content-related accidents such as kid pornography, offences related to infringements of copyright such as the illegitimate online sharing of copyrighted material, accidents against the privacy, integrity and

availability of computer data and systems such as against the law access, against the law interception, data interference and system disturbance.

In Grabosky & Cruz (1998), the next categories of crime were discovered to be growing in the digital age: 1 . Illegal telecommunications interception (e. g. hacking, breaking, data manipulation) 2 . Electronic digital vandalism

several. Electronic terrorism (e. g. viruses, denial-of-service attacks, spamming) 4. Robbery of data and communications services

5. Telecommunications and affiliated intellectual property piracy 6. Electronic syndication of porn material

7. Electronic digital fraud (e. g. phishing)

8. Electronic funds copy crime

9. Money washing


In fact , based on meaning of Grabosky & Smith ( 1998) and Mr. Pavan Duggal, 1

Cyber crime in Malaysia can be classified into several categories as follows: (A) Cyber crime against Individual

(B) Cyber crime against Property

(C) Cyber crime against Organization

(D) Web crime against Society

1 . 2 . 1 Internet crime against Individual

Its kind includes:

we. Harassment through e-mails.

ii. Cyber-stalking.

iii. Dissemination of obscene material.

iv. Defamation.

v. Unauthorized control/access more than computer system.

mire. Fraud and cheating

In addition , the word " hacker” should also be defined here as it will be used extensively in this article. Cyber criminals are quite simply people who break into and injury the information in the computer systems with no permission in the computer owner or user. Besides, the most obvious economic threats of hacking is also true physical risk which can be due to hacking in to computer sites. For cases, The Malaysian Parliament site that was been hacked by the IP Addresses in Brazil and France about December 2k after looking up. The relevant specialists in all those countries were contacted for assistance in the investigation.

1 . 2 . 2 Web crime Against Organization

Internet crime against organization includes Credit Card Fraud, Perceptive Property offense which include software piracy such as circulation of clones of software, against the law copying of programs, logos violations, copyright laws infringement, thievery of pc source code and Net time robbery which means the unauthorized using the Internet several hours by the person who is not really the payer.

Furthermore, Credit card fraud is known as a...

Essay about Electronic Account Transfer